Getting a Green Card Through Marriage: A Complete Guide
Getting a green card through marriage to a US citizen or lawful permanent resident is a common path to permanent residency. But the process involves meticulous paperwork, interviews to determine the legitimacy of the marriage, complex timelines, and government fees.
This comprehensive guide covers everything you need to know about getting a marriage-based green card.
- Benefits of a Marriage-Based Green Card
- Basic Eligibility Requirements
- Steps to Getting a Marriage Green Card
- Timeline for Getting a Marriage Green Card
- Costs and Fees
- Documents Required
- Marriage Interview Questions
- Conditional vs Permanent Green Cards
- Renewal and Removal of Conditions
- Green Card Denial and Appeals
- Free Marriage-Based Green Card Resources
- Marriage Green Card FAQs
A green card allows you to permanently live and work legally in the United States. As the spouse of a US citizen or green card holder, you may qualify for a green card.
Here’s an overview of what I’ll cover in this guide:
- Benefits of a marriage-based green card
- Basic eligibility requirements
- Step-by-step process
- Timeline for approval
- Costs and fees
- Documents required
- Marriage interview questions
- Conditional vs permanent green cards
- Renewal and removal of conditions
- Denials and appeals
Let’s get started!
Benefits of a Marriage-Based Green Card
There are many advantages to getting a green card through marriage rather than other paths.
A few key benefits include:
- Live and work permanently anywhere in the United States
- Apply for US citizenship after 3 years (instead of 5 years)
- Sponsor additional family members more quickly
- Travel freely in and out of the US
- Own property and attend US schools
- Eligible to file paperwork from within the US, even with prior immigration violations
- No need for employer sponsorship or educational credentials
In summary, a marriage green card provides a direct path to work authorization and eventual US citizenship.
Basic Eligibility Requirements
You must meet all the following requirements to qualify for a marriage green card:
- Married to a US citizen or green card holder
- Entered into the marriage in good faith
- Marriage is legally valid
- Spouse meets income requirements
- Neither you nor your spouse have disqualifying factors
Let’s break these down in more detail.
Valid Marriage to US Citizen or Permanent Resident
Your spouse must be either:
- A US citizen or
- A green card holder (lawful permanent resident)
You must have legally married your spouse. Your marriage must be:
- Legally recognized in the jurisdiction (state or country) where it took place
- Bona fide and not entered for the sole purpose of gaining a green card
- Monogamous (no polygamy)
- Allowed under federal laws around incest, age, and other requirements
To determine if your marriage meets “bona fide” requirements, USCIS considers factors like:
- If you intended to establish a life together when you got married
- If you actually live together with joint responsibilities and assets
- The length of time you dated before marriage
Sham or fraudulent marriages solely to get a green card are illegal and can lead to severe penalties.
Spouse Income Requirements
The petitioning spouse must demonstrate they can financially support you at 125% above the US poverty line.
If your spouse does not meet the income threshold alone, they can use a joint sponsor who is a US citizen or green card holder with suitable income.
Evidence of financial capacity includes recent tax returns, bank statements, investment accounts, or an employer letter.
No Disqualifying Factors
You must prove you are admissible and eligible for a green card. Reasons why you may be denied include:
- Certain criminal convictions
- Prior immigration violations
- Health issues
- National security concerns
- Public charge (likelihood of needing government financial help)
This also applies to your spouse if they have any disqualifying factors.
Now that you know the basic eligibility rules, let’s look at the step-by-step process.
Steps to Getting a Marriage Green Card
There are three major steps to getting your marriage green card:
Step 1: Your spouse files Form I-130 to establish eligibility
Step 2: You file adjustment of status (Form I-485) or consular processing
Step 3: Attend green card interview and receive approval
Next I’ll explain each step in greater detail.
Step 1: Your Spouse Files Form I-130
The first step is for your US citizen or green card holder spouse to file Form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative. This establishes you are in a bona fide marriage and starts your green card application.
What Does Form I-130 Include?
Some key items in the I-130 application include:
- Your spouse’s proof of US citizenship or permanent residency
- Marriage certificate establishing legal union
- Evidence you married in good faith with shared responsibilities
- Termination documents for any prior marriages
- Filing fees and financial documentation
Documents like tax returns, leases, bank accounts, birth certificates, photos, and affidavits from people who know you help demonstrate a legitimate marriage.
It can take 8 to 14 months for the I-130 to get approved after filing. This determines if you can move forward with the process.
Step 2: File for Adjustment of Status or Consular Processing
Once the I-130 is approved, you must either:
1. File Form I-485 to adjust status from within the US
2. Undergo consular processing from your home country
Whether you can adjust status within the US vs consular processing depends on your current immigration status. I explain both below.
Filing Form I-485, Adjustment of Status
If you are currently in the US in a valid non-immigrant status like an H-1B or F-1 student visa, you may be eligible to adjust status and get your green card without leaving the US.
To do this, you need to file Form I-485 Application to Register for Permanent Residence or Adjust Status. This is filed concurrently or after the I-130 is approved.
Some key things to keep in mind about filing Form I-485:
- You must have a valid entry on an allowable visa status
- Requires medical exam and financial documents
- Must stay in status while I-485 is pending
- Takes 12-15 months for approval currently
If the I-485 is approved after filing, you’ll be a conditional permanent resident once you attend the green card interview.
Consular Processing from Home Country
If you don’t meet the requirements to adjust status within the US, you must return to your home country and go through consular processing to get an immigrant visa.
This involves applying at a US consulate abroad to get your marriage-based green card. It allows you to enter the US and receive your conditional green card.
Key steps in consular processing include:
- Your spouse files I-130 (same as above)
- Once approved, file DS-260 immigrant visa application
- Attend visa interview at consulate in home country
- Get medical exam and financial documents
- Receive visa approval and enter US within 6 months
Consular processing often takes 8 to 15 months after the DS-260 is submitted. Visa wait times can vary by country.
Step 3: Attend Green Card Interview
The final step to getting your marriage green card is to attend an interview with USCIS. The officer aims to verify your:
- Marriage is bona fide
- Background information provided was accurate
- Any discrepancies from previous filings
They ask questions about your relationship, verify documents are correct, and determine preliminary approval.
If you filed I-485 within the US, your spouse must attend this interview with you. It typically takes place at a local USCIS field office.
If you are doing consular processing abroad, you’ll attend the visa interview solo at the embassy without your spouse.
In either situation, the green card is approved or denied based on this final interview.
Timeline for Getting a Marriage Green Card
The total timeline to get a marriage green card ranges between 10 to 20 months currently.
Here is a breakdown of how long each step takes:
- I-130 Processing (Step 1): 8 to 14 months
- Adjustment of Status (Step 2): 12 to 15 months
- Consular processing (Step 2): 8 to 15 months
- Green card interview (Step 3): Varies
So the total timeframe can vary greatly depending on your visa type and background screening.
Citizenship applications only take 3 years from the time you receive conditional or permanent residency.
Costs and Fees
Applying for a marriage green card involves several major fees required by USCIS and other governmental agencies. Costs may include:
- Form I-130 filing fee: $535
- From I-485 filing fee: $1,140
- Financial support form I-864 fee: $120
- Medical exam fees: $200-$400
- Document translation fees: $80+ per document
- Attorney fees: Starts at $2,500+
Total costs can easily exceed $5,000 for obtaining a marriage green card in straightforward cases. Complications like the need to appeal rejections can increase costs.
Having an experienced immigration lawyer handle the paperwork and representation saves money over mistakes or multiple application attempts. Consider all costs when budgeting for this major life event.
Each step in the marriage green card process requires specific forms and supporting evidence. Key documents include:
From the petitioning US spouse:
- Identification like US passport of green card copies
- Birth certificate
- Tax returns and evidence of income
- Termination of any previous marriages
From the beneficiary spouse applying:
- Passport and birth certificate copies
- Photos of you together from the marriage period
- Tax and financial information
- Termination of any previous marriages
Joint documentation showing shared responsibilities:
- Marriage certificate
- Bank accounts and asset records in both names
- Apartment leases or property deeds/titles
- Insurance policies listing both spouses
- Children’s birth certificates if applicable
Having an organized list of documents required well before filing ensures applications are error-free and approved on time.
Marriage Interview Questions
As discussed earlier, all marriage-based green cards require an in-person interview with a USCIS official. This meeting aims to verify the details of your relationship and determine if it is authentic.
Questions may cover topics like:
- How, when, where you met your spouse
- Background like date and place of birth, family members
- Wedding details including guests, location, honeymoon plans
- Current living situation, household members, pets
- Joint bank accounts, shared bills and expenses
- Future plans and goals as a married couple
In some cases, immigration officers separate spouses into different rooms then compare their answers later to identify inconsistencies suggesting fraud.
Honest couples with thorough documentation and knowledge about their relationship tend to pass these interviews successfully.
Conditional vs Permanent Green Cards
If you have been married less than 2 years when the green card application is approved, you receive conditional permanent residence. This is valid for 2 years.
Conditional green cards require jointly filing Form I-751 to remove those conditions before the 2-year expiration. This extends the green card another 10 years.
If you have been married more than 2 years when approved, you receive an initial 10-year permanent green card without conditions.
Either way, you must remain married and share responsibilities consistent with your vows. Divorce or legal separation before the conditions are removed may lead to rejection of your green card.
You can become a US citizen after 3 years of permanent resident status in both cases.
Renewal and Removal of Conditions
Whether you get conditional or permanent green card initially, maintaining status involves responsibilities like renewal applications.
For conditional green cards:
You and your spouse must file Form I-751 within 90 days before the expiration date to remove conditions. This requires documenting legitimate marriage during the initial 2 years.
Once conditions are removed, you get a 10-year permanent green card.
For permanent green cards:
You must file Form I-90 to renew the green card several months before it expires in 10 years. This application may not require further marriage documentation if you show continuous eligibility.
In both renewal situations, any criminal offenses or other determination you no longer qualify can lead to rejection.
Green Card Denial and Appeals
Even if you follow all proper procedures, around 15% of marriage-based green cards get denied each year. Some common reasons for rejection include:
- Insufficient evidence the marriage is bona fide
- Discovering factors that make you inadmissible
- Inaccurate or incomplete forms and documents
- Prior immigration violations like overstaying visas
- Fraudulent marriage solely for green card
If your green card application gets denied, you have 30 days to file an appeal with the Board of Immigration Appeals. The other option is consulting an immigration attorney to identify issues and reapply correctly.
Preparing a strong application is essential even if you must appeal rejections that are unwarranted. Having an attorney from the start prevents most denial scenarios.
Free Marriage-Based Green Card Resources
Here are some helpful government resources about getting green cards through marriage:
- USCIS Marriage Green Cards Page
- Check Visa Availability and Priority Dates
- Green Card Eligibility Categories
- Avoid Immigration Scams
Marriage Green Card FAQs
Here are answers to 10 common questions about getting green cards through marriage:
1. How long does it take to get a marriage green card?
It takes 10 to 20 months currently for the entire process including approval.
2. Can I work in the US while my green card is pending?
Yes, you can get a work permit while awaiting approval using Form I-765.
3. What if my marriage ends before I get approved?
Approval may be denied if your marriage was not legitimate or you divorce before receiving the green card.
4. Does my spouse need to be a US citizen?
No, being married to a green card holder (lawful permanent resident) also qualifies.
5. What documents do I file for a marriage green card?
You file Form I-130, then I-485 or DS-260 visa application plus supporting marriage documentation.
6. How many green card interviews are required?
In most marriage green card cases, spouses only attend one interview together.
7. Can I travel outside the US with a pending application?
No, travel is not recommended if your application is still being processed or it may be considered abandoned.
8. How does USCIS investigate marriage authenticity?
Through green card interviews, review of documents like photos and bank statements for validity.
9. What is the difference between conditional and permanent green cards?
Conditional is for 2 years, permanent for 10 years. Time married when approved determines which you get.
10. How do I appeal a green card denial?
You can file an appeal within 30 days or consult a lawyer to identify and correct issues before reapplying.