US Port of Entry Process for International Students on F1 Visa
Posted by Frank Gogol
Updated on April 27, 2022
You finally received the stamp that will grant you access to pursue higher education in the United States. You are carrying an F1 visa and believe you are all set to enter the United States now.
However, this is not the reality at the US Port of Entry (POE), and your lack of awareness on the process won’t help you get into the country. On the more extreme side, there are even cases of F1 visa holders getting deported because they failed to convince CBP officers of their right to study in the country.
This is not the fate anyone desires when trying to enter a country. The best thing to do to avoid this nightmare is to be completely aware and informed on how the US POE process works for your visa type.
This article will give you a comprehensive outline of what you can expect at a US POE so that you are prepared for whatever will come your way. This high-level overview of the process will include details about what to expect, and the questions type common for F1 visa students entering the US to pursue higher education.
Before we get started, let’s go back to the basics so that you understand what this all entails.
Check out our video guide “U.S. Customs and Immigration Questions at USA Airport” or read on to learn more!
Table of Contents
Am I Guaranteed Admission to the US with a Visa?
Having a visa does not guarantee admission into the US; in reality, the visa only acts as a permission slip for you to arrive at the port of entry. The next part, which includes your interview with a CBP officer, will determine whether or not you will be allowed in.
The final decision is always in the hands of the CBP officer at the POE you make it to. The visa is only the first step in the process to eventually be granted access to the US. If you want to know more about this, read the details about what a US visa is, directly from the US Department of State.
What is a Port of Entry in the US?
The Port of Entry, usually abbreviated as POE, is simply the place where you enter the United States. This can be an international airport, seaport, or land-border checkpoint.
If you have a connecting flight, the first stop would be considered your Port of Entry. A helpful tip is to make sure you have a lot of time between connections to get through immigration, that way you don’t miss the second or third leg of your flight. Lastly, if you drive from nearby countries like Mexico or Canada, the border checkpoint on land would be the Port of Entry.
What is a CBP Officer?
A CBP officer is a Customs and Border Protection Officer that checks your documents, asks you questions, and ensures you are properly authorized to enter the US. You find these officers at every US POE and their role is to ensure physical and economic security in the United States. They have a guide they refer to that prompts them on how to act in the best interest of the United States. For students, they typically check your I-20, school info, among other things, and make sure you have all correct documentation for your entry.
What is a Primary Inspection Booth and What Can I Expect at One?
The Primary Inspection Booth is the place where CBP officers check and interview those arriving in the US. You usually get in a line with all other non-US citizens and wait to be called to one of the available booths for your short interview. Here, the CBP Officer checks all your documents and asks you questions.
Questions the CBP Officer Can Ask You:
- What is your purpose of entering the US?
- What school are you planning to study at?
- How are you paying for your education?
Usually, the inspection lasts anywhere from under 5 minutes to a maximum of 10 minutes.
If the CBP officer is not convinced with your answers or is not able to verify a specific document, then you will be sent for secondary inspection. If the CBP officer is convinced with what you had to say and your documents all pass his inspection, they will stamp your passport indicating your US visa status at entry. Your visa is now in full effect.
What Should I Expect if I Get Sent to a Secondary Inspection?
You will be sent to secondary inspection when the CBP officer believes you need additional screening to enter the US. The reasons for this action could be the CBP officers’ inability to verify your documents, possible fraudulent documents, or the belief that you have different intentions for entering the country.
This part will be more comprehensive than what you experienced at the Primary Inspection Booth. You may be in question for hours — or even longer — depending on how the officers see your situation. The point of this inspection is to verify your details without causing interruption to other passengers who are coming in. If you are taken for secondary inspection, do not worry; as long as your intentions are true and you are genuine with your answers, you will not have any problems entering the US.
The CBP officer will check your status in SEVIS. If there are issues or they need more information on your program or school, they may check with your school’s Designated School Officer (DSO). It is recommended you have the name, phone number, and emergency phone number of your school’s DSO at all times.
If for some reason, your documents cannot be verified, or a SEVI Fee was not paid, the CBP officer may deny you entry at their discretion. They might then issue you Form I-515A, which allows you to enter the US temporarily for 30 days. Within these 30 days, you need to report to your DSO and get your issues sorted out quickly. To learn more about this process read FAQs on Form I-515A.
What Documents Should I Carry as an F1 student to Make Sure I’m Not Denied at Port of Entry?
Below we outline a general set of documents you should have with you when arriving at your US POE. Make sure you do not put these documents in your checked luggage! Keep them handy with you at all times in case any problems arise — there will be no excuses at the US POE for misplaced documents. You are only allowed to pick up your checked-in bags after the interview with the CBP officer.
F1 Visa Student Document Checklist at US Port of Entry
- Valid Passport with expiration date long enough for your studies in the US
- I-20 Signed by DSO
- Admission/Acceptance letters from school
- I-901 SEVIS fee payment receipt
- Document proof for your financial support to cover your education
- Original documents of your undergrad and other education certificates
- Copy of your past transcripts that were sent to school
- Name and contact info of DSO at your school
- Address of where you will stay in the US
- Contact info of seniors or anyone whom you interacted with (optional, but recommended)
- Any other documents like GRE, TOEFL score reports (optional, but recommended)
9 Reasons Indian F1 Students are Being Refused Entry or are Being Deported
In recent years, under the Trump administration, there has been a spike in the refusal of entry and even the deportation of Indian students in the U.S. That, coupled with purposeful abuses of the F1 Visa program have to lead to increased entry refusals and deportations. Below we discuss the top reasons for this spike.
- F1 Students Misrepresenting Themselves – While much of the political climate of the U.S. has fueled port entry refusals and deportations, some of the blame is on the F1 visa holders themselves. Some enter the U.S. under false pretenses and misrepresent their reasons for taking part in the F1 Visa program.
- Diploma Mills – Many students are purposefully or unknowingly attending “diploma mills”, schools that undermine the F1 Visa program and lead to abuse of the CTP program.
- CPT Program Abuse – Some students treat the CTP program as a work permit. The CPT program is designed for students to receive practical job training, not to act as de facto permission to live and work in the U.S.
- Misuse of the F1 Visa – While some F1 students act under false pretenses, others purposefully misuse the F1 Visa program, which is strictly for the purposes of education, as means to attempt to stay in the U.S. (dual-intent).
- Misinformation – Some students are action on misinformation that is being spread via popular online forums for the purposes of causing unknowing F1 students to attend diploma mills or to misunderstand the restrictions of the F1 Visa program.
- Anti-Immigration Sentiment – The current political climate prevailing in the U.S. is having an overall negative effect on immigration policy. As a result, obtaining an F1 visa and entering the U.S. is harder than ever.
- The Trump Administration – The current U.S. Presidential administration of Donald Trump has built itself, at least in part, on the promise to close U.S. borders. This has lead to policies that reflect this agenda and reduced opportunities for F1 visa holders.
- A Broken System – A visa stamp will allow you to travel to the U.S., but when you arrive it is up to the discretion of the CBP Officer to make the final determination about whether you can enter. Unfortunately, due to systematic racism and other issues, many F1 students are turned away at the port of entry.
- Luck – Sometimes, these things just come down to luck. Denial of entry is not an exact science, and sometimes would-be F1 Visa holders who meet the same criteria as their peers may find themselves being refused entry to the U.S.
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That wraps up this review of the US Port of Entry process for F1 visa students.
Remember, it is very important as an international student to be prepared for the US POE procedure to avoid any issues. If you are taken into secondary inspection, there is no need to fret — simply tell the truth and stay as calm as possible. It is your responsibility to be fully aware of your school, your program, and other details of your education in the US so be prepared to answer any question.
Good luck on passing your first test as you pursue higher education in the United States! We hope this gave you a better idea of what to expect whenever you get to the United States. If you have any questions, do not hesitate to let us know and we will do everything possible to help you resolve your worries and concerns.
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